In this module, you will learn:

  • vertebrates are animal with backbone
  • there are 5 groups of vertebrates

Resources to help you:

  • Textbook: page 42 and 43
  • Notebook: page 21, 22 and 23

Watch the video

Learn about vertebrates

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qRKoGO7hNXg

You can change the speed to 0.75x to make it easier to listen.

Skeleton of a dolphin (mammal)

Credit: @osixpack via Twenty20

Vertebrates

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Vertebrates are animals with backbones.There are five (5) groups of vertebrates:

  1. Fishes
  2. Amphibians
  3. Reptiles
  4. Birds
  5. Mammals

Before we begin, it would be useful to know the differences between what a warm-blooded or cold-blooded vertebrate is.

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Warm-blooded

  • Their internal body temperature does not change.
  • Example in humans, our body temperature stays around 37°C whether it is cold or hot outside.

Cold-blooded

  • Their internal body temperature changes depending on the temperature of their environment.

Fishes

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Below are some of the characteristics of fishes:

  1. they are cold-blooded
  2. they have body usually covered with scales
  3. they breathe using gills
  4. they live in freshwater or seawater
  5. they lay eggs with no shell

The Lion fish is a venomous fish.

Credit: @sergeyskleznev via Envato Elements

Sea horse is a also a fish.

Credit: @Ilya2k via Envato Elements

A frog eating a grasshopper

Credit: @LeaA via Twenty20

A salamander is an amphibian

Credit: @sergeyxsp via Envato Elements

Amphibians

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Below are some of the characteristics of amphibians:

  1. they are cold-blooded
  2. they have moist skin without scales
  3. they breathe through lungs and moist skin
  4. they live partly on land and in water
  5. Young amphibians breathe through gills
  6. they lay eggs with no shells

Reptiles

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Below are some of the characteristics of reptiles:

  1. they are cold-blooded
  2. they have dry skin usually covered with scales
  3. they breathe through lungs
  4. they mostly live on land
  5. they lay their eggs on land
  6. their eggs have soft shell

A blue viper

Credit: @didinmsr via Twenty20

An iguana

Credit: @Nodar via Twenty20

Green sea turtle breathes through its lungs

Credit: @cookelma via Envato Elements

Flamingoes

Credit: @Barefoot_Traveller via Twenty20

A flying Puffin

Credit: @adamaki via Twenty20

Penguins cannot fly but they are good swimmers

Credit: @okanakdeniz via Envato Elements

Birds

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Below are some of the characteristics of birds:

  1. they are warm-blooded
  2. they have beaks
  3. they have feathers
  4. they have wings but not all can fly
  5. they breathe through lungs
  6. they lay eggs with shells

Mammals

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Below are some of the characteristics of mammals:

  1. they are warm-blooded
  2. they have hair
  3. they breathe through lungs
  4. Most give birth to their youngs alive

Both dolphin and human are mammals

Credit: @hannievanbaarle via Twenty20

A female kangaroo and her joey (baby kangaroo)

Credit: @sweetadeline via Twenty20

Watch the video

The platypus is the only mammal that lay eggs

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QNoQvjlmGdk

You can change the speed to 0.75x to make it easier to listen.

Ready for the next module?

In the next module, we will look at the classification of invertebrates.

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