In this module, you will learn:

  • The three (3) states of matter
  • The properties of solid
  • The properties of liquid
  • The properties of gas

Resources to help you:

  • Textbook: page 52 and 53
  • Notebook: page 27

Watch the video

Learn about the different states of matter

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQsybALJoew

You can change the speed to 0.75x to make it easier to listen.

A model of an atom

Credit: @Handrox-G via Envato Elements

Matter

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Matter is anything that has mass or weight and has volume or takes up space. It is all around us.


Matter are made of very small particles called atoms. In fact, they are so small that you can't see it with a microscope.


Matter exists in three states:

  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas

Solids

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The properties of solids are:

  1. they have fixed shape
  2. they have fixed volume
  3. they do not flow

Some of the examples of solids are:

stone, wood, book, table, chair, most metal

Tables, chairs and books are examples of solids

Credit: @jenni.heller via Twenty20

Water being poured into a cup illustrates how liquid flows

Credit: @GoodMan_Ekim via Envato Elements

Liquids

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The properties of liquids are:

  1. they have no fixed shape
  2. they have fixed volume
  3. they flow

Some of the examples of liquids are:

milk, petrol, water, oil, perfume, mercury (metal)

Gases

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The properties of gases are:

  1. they have no fixed shape
  2. they have no fixed volume
  3. they flow

Some of the examples of gases are:

oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, water vapour, steam

Solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) added to water

sublimes into carbon dioxide gas

Credit: @ielanum via Envato Elements

The Kinetic Particle Theory

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This theory is useful to help us understand about the atoms or molecules inside the three states of matter. It helps us to better understand the properties of solids, liquids and gases.

So there are a few things to consider:

  1. All matter are made of tiny particles (atoms or molecules or ions)
  2. All particles are constantly moving
  3. The speed of the movement depends on the amount of energy the particles have

Arrangement of particles in solid, liquid and gas

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Solid

  1. Particles are arranged closely and in fixed position.
  2. There is very little space between the particles
  3. They can only vibrate in their fixed position.

Liquid

  1. Particles are arranged closely but not in fixed position.
  2. There is more space between the particles
  3. They can move over short distances.

Gas

  1. Particles are further apart and not in fixed position.
  2. There is a lot of space in between the particles.
  3. They can move freely in any direction.

Time for practice quiz

Now that you have learnt the properties of solids, liquids and gases, you can click below to do a practice quiz.

Ready for the next module?

In the next module, we will look at the process of diffusion.

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