In this module, you will learn:

  • use of distillation
  • set up of distillation in the lab
  • use of paper chromatography
  • set up of paper chromatography in the lab

Resources to help you:

  • Textbook: page 82, 83, 84 and 85
  • Notebook: page 33

Watch the video

See how the essential oils can be collected using distillation.


You can change the speed to 0.75x to make it easier to listen.

Distillation of ethanol and water

Boiling of ethanol is 78 °C and water is 100 °C


Distillation is a process that is used to separate a liquid from a solution of two or more liquids that have different boiling points.

The process of distillation involves two process:

  • boiling
  • condensation

The liquid with the lower boiling point will first boiled and become a gas. The gas will rise and go through the condenser. The gas will become a liquid and is collected as the distillate in the beaker.

Paper chromatography

Paper chromatography is used to separate small amount of mixtures usually of coloured substances such as inks and dyes.

Different substances move at different speed by the solvent. This allows the different components to separate as the solvent moves up the filter paper.

This separation allows us to identify the different components of the mixture.

Paper chromatography can be used to separate dyes

Pencil (insoluble) is used to prevent it from moving together with the solvent.

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